What is the Lithium Battery? What are the Contents of Lithium Batteries?

What is the Basis of Lithium Battery, What is the Content of Lithium Battery?


Lithium batteries are fast replacing lead-acid batteries for stackers. Lithium batteries are now at the forefront of efficiency and improvement efforts in the rapidly changing and evolving transportation/logistics industry. Considering that lead-acid batteries were invented in 1860, this change has become inevitable in today's world.

Especially lithium batteries, which rival a 160 year old lead-acid technology, have risen in the industry in a very short time due to their advantages and ease of use.

Let's take a closer look at what lithium batteries are, how they are made and why they are the best solution for forklifts;

What is the Basis of a Lithium Battery?

Lithium batteries are generally used in LiFePO4 (lithium-iron-phosphate) chemistry cells for use in stackers. This is mainly because LiFePO4 cell chemistry is safer, more stable and longer lasting than other cell chemistries. A lithium battery consists of several basic parts. If we take a look at the content of lithium batteries in general;

  • Cell: Cells are made of various elements including cathode, anode, electrolyte and membrane. The greatest influence on the properties of today's commercially available cell chemistries is exerted by the chemistry of the cathode materials. Cells are therefore named after the chemical composition of the materials used in the cathode of a cell. Lithium-based cells appear on the market in various chemistries. A few of the most well-known cell chemistries are; Lithium iron phosphate (LFP), Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC), Lithium cobalt oxide (LCO), Lithium titanate (LTO). One of the important issues here is that the choice of cell chemistry when buying a lithium battery should be application specific.
  • BMS (Battery Control Card) : It is the brain of the lithium battery. Its main task protects the battery and switches off the system by protecting the lithium battery in an unfavourable situation. BMS generally controls voltage, current and temperature. In addition, BMS contains various communication protocols. If communication is provided with the device used, it displays all real-time data of the battery to the user.
  • DC-DC, Regulator Circuit etc.: It works together to ensure that voltage and current remain at acceptable levels.


How to Assemble?

The cells of the selected appropriate chemistry are connected in series and parallel to reach the desired voltage and capacity (e.g. 24V 100Ah or 48V 600Ah etc.). Then the BMS (Battery Control Board) and necessary sensors and components are placed. After the necessary connections are made with busbars and cables, the structure is placed in the powder coated battery container. After various tests and application-specific software, which is one of the critical points, it is made ready for shipment.